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Ancient Greek, Greek Texts / 14.12.2021

Introduction: At the assembly which Telemachus calls at the beginning of this book, he is critical of the behaviour of the suitors, one of whom, Antinous, then blames Telemachus' mother, Penelope, for deceiving the suitors, and urges him to send her to her father so another marriage can be arranged for her. After Telemachus rejects this advice, the seer Halitherses interprets the flight of two eagles as indicating that the suitors are putting themselves at great risk by their misbehaviour, as Odysseus will soon be returning home to take his...

Ancient Greek, Greek Texts / 29.10.2021

Introduction: Book XI sees the beginning of the third successive day of fighting, a very long day, which features the most sustained and violent episode of fighting in the "Iliad", and which continues until the end of Book XVIII, at which point the Achaeans' defensive wall has been breached, their ships fired, and Patroclus has been killed by Hector. All this is in fulfilment of Zeus' promise to Thetis that the Achaeans will be punished because of Agamemnon's mistreatment of her son, Achilles. Book XI is essential to the plot...

Ancient Greek, Greek Texts / 21.08.2021

Introduction: Although Sabidius has followed the Authorised Version of the Bible in attributing the 'Epistle to the Hebrews' to Paul in the above title, there is widespread recognition among biblical scholars that he himself was not the author of this letter, the vocabulary and style of which are markedly uncharacteristic of Paul, nor does the author identify himself, contrary to Paul's usual practice. The most likely alternative author is the Alexandrian Jew Apollos, although Barnabas has been considered by some as another. However, while Paul may not have written...

Ancient Greek, Greek Grammar / 22.07.2010

When, speaking English, we often ask questions which are looking for a simple, answer 'Yes' or 'No', and the manner in which we pose the question sometimes signals clearly to the respondent which answer we are expecting to receive, often indicating thereby the attitude or viewpoint of the questioner. Set out below is an analysis of the three types of such questions. Each example in English is translated into Latin and Greek. You will note that English has different forms of asking these questions, depending on the degree of emphasis the questioner wishes to inject. Readers with no previous knowledge of Latin, but who have heard references to 'Nonne' or 'Num' questions, will now be able to decipher what this distinction means.
Ancient Greek, Greek Grammar / 03.01.2010

Introduction: the analysis and purpose of conditional sentences. In any language, the ability to construct or translate conditional sentences is amongst the more demanding challenges which grammar sets us. Conditionals are more complex than other types of adverbial clause, because in the sentences in which they occur, careful attention has to be given to both clauses. A Conditional sentence consists of two clauses: (i) a subordinate adverbial clause, called the 'protasis', which expresses the condition or premise; and (ii) a main clause, called the 'apodosis' or consequence, which states what stems from that condition and therefore naturally follows after it in order of time. The 'protasis', in English the 'if-clause', is dependent, and expresses a supposition or imaginary event; the 'apodosis' is the principal clause, and states what will be the outcome if the 'protasis' is realised.